A significant improvement in performances can be gained by the implementation of OB- Mod in managing and controlling the human resources. The various stages are described below:
1. Identification of Critical Behaviours: The determination of performance-related behavioral activities is the first stage in OB Mod.
This stage is considered as the most vital stage is when an ‘inner’ state or attitude which cannot be measured or observed is identified by the change agent. Even the results surfaced due to this state will not be determined accurately.
However, the behaviors which are clearly visible can easily be discussed and altered. The association of behavior with performance is the second significant aspect of this stage.
Therefore the measures of performance should be connected to the regularities of the targeted behavior.
The identification of favorable and unfavorable behaviors context of the organization is the responsibility of the manager.
Due consideration must be given to the behaviors which have a noteworthy impact on the performance of the employees as they are recurring in nature. Better outcomes can be obtained later if these behaviors are altered.
Attendance or absenteeism, constructive criticism or complaints, performing and not performing any task, and promptness or tardiness are some of the behaviors which impact the performance of employees.
Due to their close proximity with job behaviors, both the employee and his superior must be included in the discussion for identifying the crucial behaviors.
2. Measurement of Behaviours: Measurement of behavior is the next stage in OB Mod. The counting of occurrences of behavior can be adopted as a tool for this purpose.
A statistical representation of the behavior is then obtained by representing these occurrences on a graph. A variety of purposes are served by these graphs and measurements.
First of all, the intensity of behavioral problems can be analyzed by the graphs, especially when both behavior and performance measures are plotted together in combination with each other.
Secondly, the environmental outcomes can also be recognized by these graphs. The occurrence of reinforcement in the environment is identified when there is an increase in the frequency of behaviors.
In the same manner, any decrease in the frequency indicates the withdrawal of reinforcement or the presence of punishers.
Lastly, a guideline to analyze the effectiveness of punishers or reinforces is provided by these graphs, which can be implemented for behavior modification.
Some fundamental performance information is needed to be furnished by the manager at this stage. Over a period of time, the manager records the occurrences of crucial behavior.
The manager’s success in behavior modification of employees can be determined through these records. Using these records, various situations pertaining to all crucial behaviors can also be understood.
3. Functional Analysis of Behaviours: It is the third stage of O.B. Mod. This stage includes the division of environment and behavior into three different functional elements, which are known as Antecedent (A) – Behaviour (B) — and Consequence (C) or A-B-C.
For the identification of antecedents and consequences, a variety of methods can be employed. The change agent can enlist various possible outcomes and indications by observing the situations.
For recognizing the various elements in the environment which support or control the behavior of an individual, interviewing the performers or other people can also be used as an effective tool.
At last,’’ celebrations” in the behavior can be associated with the various events in the environment which have the capability of maintaining/modifying or prompting the behavior under analysis.
This can be done by evaluating the graphs of behavioral frequencies. A comprehensive list of various factors which control or support the behaviors can be obtained as the end result of this stage.
The evaluation of patterns of sustained behavior that are to be modified or changed is very important. It necessitates the understanding and examination of individual variances in behavior.
The succeeding stage of intervention is simplified considerably if a list of positive reinforces can be generated at this stage.
The recognition of contingent consequences must be made necessarily in this third stage as only these have an impact on subsequent behavior.
4. Development of Intervention Strategy: Developing strategies for intervention is the fourth stage of the O.B. Mod.
It simply refers to the introduction or re-organization of the outcomes and indications in the surroundings to direct the behavior in the desired direction.
The action stage for developing a suitable intervention strategy will be determined by the recognition of critical behaviors, which need to be modified, and the various elements encouraging these behaviors.
The following points are involved for the successful implementation of OB Mod:
- Formulation of a strategy for behavior modification,
- Execution of the strategy, and
- Assessing the frequency of the consequential behavior.
The frequency of problem behavior repetition is maintained and recorded. A reinforcement schedule will be chosen by the manager for maintaining the favorable behavior if the modification in behavior takes place in the preferred direction.
5. Evaluation: Evaluation is the last step in OB Mod and is based upon experiments. It ensures that the desired performance improvement is attained due to the application of interventions on behavior.
This evaluation stage uses control group experimental designs, reversal, and multiple baselines. The intervention strategy, which is developed in the fourth stage, will be maintained if performance and behavior both are modified in the preferred direction.
However, the stages in the model need to be implemented again if either the performance or behavior does not show any kind of favorable modification.
The main objective of evaluating O.B. Mod strategies is to understand their usefulness and degree of success. Relevant information about the replacement of undesired behaviors with the desired behaviors can be gained with the help of this activity.
Information regarding whether the employees have imbibed changes in their behaviors permanently or temporarily can also be discovered by the evaluation of OB Mod strategies.
The basic objective of OB Mod, i.e., assessment of behavioral improvement, must be accomplished by the manager.