Various factors affecting learning are as follows:
1. Sensation and Perception: Learning is influenced by two psychological factors, i.e., sensation and perception. The sensation is the essence of perception.
Sense organs, i.e., skin, ears, tongue, eyes, and nose, act as the receptors of human understanding. They usually help in the interpretation of stimuli received from the atmosphere.
The malfunctioning of any of these organs will definitely have an overall effect on learning and ultimately act as a barrier to the enhancement of an individual’s knowledge.
For example, there are various defects of vision such as myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, etc., which have a considerable effect on the human body and result in pain in the spinal cord, redness of eyes, reluctance, and irritation while studying, headache, anxiety, etc.
2. Fatigue and Boredom: The learner is more irritated by boredom as compared to fatigue. Fatigue is a mental or physical form of tiredness, but it has its effect on the overall efficiency and competency of work, whereas boredom is a demotivation or deep disliking or hatred towards work.
If such disliking keeps on arising in the person’s mind, the person might have a feeling of weariness or fatigue, but in reality, he may not be so weary or tired.
3. Age and Maturation: Age and adulthood have a remarkable influence on the process of learning. If the person is not in the right frame of mind or lacking intelligence, the learning will not happen at all.
Some learners have the ability to infuse things quickly into their minds, while others might take time to learn the same.
Mental age and chronological age increase simultaneously, and when the person reaches the age of sixteen, it ceases to develop further.
So, intellectual adulthood is an increase in age through which a person is able to apply the mind to solve complicated tasks or problems.
4. Emotional Conditions: The quality and speed of the learning process can be augmented when the responsive surroundings pertaining to them are favorable.
Happiness, joy, and contentment are necessary for any type of learning, while adverse emotional circumstances serve as a barrier towards the process of learning.
Numerous investigations have been done, and it is a well-established fact that psychological disorders such as emotional anxiety, exertion, pressures, hindrances, etc., are not at all suitable for pursuing any approach that is academic in nature.
5. Needs: Human beings have different needs. Fulfillment of these needs results in the achievement of certain ambitions of life.
After the accomplishment of these ambitions, the specific need is satisfied for a short time. Eventually, an urge comes out from inside, and these tendencies occur again sooner or later and pave the way for further activities to get accomplished.
There are some physiological needs in human beings, such as the need for oxygen, food, water, etc. Some needs may be collective such as love, acceptance, and self-interest, etc.
The collective needs are quite distinguishable from the physiological needs. Social needs usually come up after the satisfaction of the physiological needs.
These needs usually have a complicated structure and can have a far-reaching effect on the individual’s conduct.
The needs such as safety, love, and attachment, and self-esteem, act as powerful physiological needs in the process of learning.
6. Interests: Activities in which the learner is interested promotes the process of learning.
7. Attitude: The mental approach of the learner plays a vital role and has a significant influence on the learning process.
If the learner is enthusiastically prepared, possesses diligence and interest towards the material, which he ought to learn, the learner will obviously have a positive attitude about it.
This attitude will enable the learner to handle the learning process in a careful manner, with a pleasant state of mind and with a lot of efficiencies.